Is Chemistry, a religion?

I was attending my Organic Chemistry lecture here today, and lecturer Dr. Yu, Yixin reminded us of the sp3, sp2, sp hybridization. I was surprised when I was told that one electron from the 2s orbital gets promoted to 2pz orbitals to give 4 identically shaped sp3 hybrid orbitals, oriented along the vertices of a tetrahedron.According to Aufbau principle, 2pz has a higher energy than a 2s. Where does this extra energy to promote one electron from the 2s orbital to 2pz come from? I asked Dr. Yu whether Carbon has to be heated or something to make it hybridized, and he thinks, no. He admitted that it is just an explanation of what happens, and that there is no evidence.Then why is it being taught in a textbook?I think the reality of sp3 hybridization is more probabilistic than the “deterministic” “digital” explanation given in the textbooks. Since we are dealing with probabilities of electrons around the nucleus it is likely (less than 90% chance) that one electron from the 2s orbital is in the 2pz orbital at times, and it is only during those times Carbon acquires a hybridized state. So in its ground state, Carbon shifts between hybridized and non-hybridized states.But that temporary hybridization would be enough for it form methane molecules with 4 identical tetrahedrally arranged covalent bonds with Hydrogen’s 1s electrons. And once the methane is formed, it acquires a low energy state in which the Carbon atom inside the methane molecule is permanently in a hybridized form.So my hypothesis is that, the probability of Carbon being in a hybridized state must be accounted for in an All Atom Quantum Mechanical simulations of Organic Chemistry. Because it would dramatically affect the yield of methane synthesis, and just about every other organic reaction.


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